Representation of Search and Target Acquisition Protocol in Models and Simulation
AbstractThis research evaluates the representation of individual Soldier Search and Target Acquisition (STA) protocols in models and simulation and identifies gaps in the current methodology and implementation. The primary contributions of this research include a synthesis of related literature, an algorithmic exploration of the current STA algorithms implemented in military simulation models, a functional analysis of three systems with a significant relationship to STA, and a determination of gaps and proposed solutions to improve the representation of human STA in military simulation models. The analysis highlighted gaps in three important STA representations: (1) field of view search, (2) identification in a field of view, and (3) information acquisition and situational awareness. Implications and recommendations to resolve these gaps are discussed.
Darken, C.J., Evangelista, P.F., & Jungkunz, P. (2011). Modeling and Integration of Situational Awareness and Soldier Target Search. Monterey, California: Institutional Archive of the Naval Postgraduate School.
Donohue, J. (1991). Introductory review of target discrimination criteria (No. E-19290U). Dynamics Research Corp Wilmington, Ma.
Driggers, R. G., Jacobs, E. L., Vollmerhausen, R. H., O'Kane, B., Self, M., Moyer, S., ... & Kistner, R. (2006, May). Current infrared target acquisition approach for military sensor design and wargaming. In Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XVII (Vol. 6207, p. 620709). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
“Introduction,” IWARS 5.1 User Guide. April (2014).
IWARS Methodology Guide. Version 2.0.6. (2010)
Jones, D.B. (1974). Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Source Book: A Review of Literature. Alexandria, Virginia: US Department of Commerce.
Najemnik, J. & Geisler, W.S. (2010). Eye Movement Statistics in Humans are Consistent with an Optimal Search Strategy. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institutes of Health.
Sjaardema, T.A., Smith, C.S., & Birch, G.C. History and Evolution of the Johnson Criteria. (n.d). United States.
Sutherland, D.M. (2010). Identification of Soldier Behaviors Associated with Search and Target Acquisition (STA) (No. Natick/Tr-10/010). Army Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center Ma.
Target Acquisition and Misidentification ACQUIRE-TTPM-TAS. Physical Model Acquisition Document (PKAD). (2012). (U.S. Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland).
Treisman, A. (1986). Features and Objects in Visual Processing. New York: Scientific American, Inc.
Vollmerhausen, R.H., Jacobs, E.L., & Driggers, R.G. (2004). New metric for predicting target acquisition performance. Optical Engineering, 43(11), 2806-2819.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
The copyediting stage is intended to improve the flow, clarity, grammar, wording, and formatting of the article. It represents the last chance for the author to make any substantial changes to the text because the next stage is restricted to typos and formatting corrections. The file to be copyedited is in Word or .rtf format and therefore can easily be edited as a word processing document. The set of instructions displayed here proposes two approaches to copyediting. One is based on Microsoft Word's Track Changes feature and requires that the copy editor, editor, and author have access to this program. A second system, which is software independent, has been borrowed, with permission, from the Harvard Educational Review. The journal editor is in a position to modify these instructions, so suggestions can be made to improve the process for this journal.