Developing Requirements to Validate Autonomous Ground Vehicle Simulations
Keywords:Autonomous Vehicles, Simulation Validation, Virtual Testing
This project developed a methodology for assessing simulation testing of the United States’ military autonomous vehicle platforms. The authors conducted background research of autonomous vehicles and simulation to determine the best virtual testing methods that provided the strongest evidence of simulation performance. The team created a requirements list for the simulation software of autonomous vehicles to help drive the virtual test development and conducted statistical analyses, pairwise comparisons, and visual analysis tests to assess simulation data compared to data from physical test runs. The authors identified multiple methods of virtual testing that can assess the autonomous vehicle simulation for further development.
Holland, M. (2014). Sensor Deployment Analysis with the Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment. Engineer Research and Development Center. https://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/Media/News-Stories/Article/
Jokela, Maria, Kutila, Matti, and Pyykonen, Pasi. (2019). Testing and Validation of Automotive Point-Cloud Sensors in Adverse Weather Conditions. Applied Sciences, 9(11), 2341. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112341.
Jones, R.A., Priddy, J.D. Horner, D.A., and Peters, J.F. (2008). Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE). Earth and Space 2008. https://doi.org/10.1061/40988(323)114.
MITRE Staff. (2018). Verification and validation of simulation models. The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved September 27, 2021, https://www.mitre.org/publications/systems-engineering-guide/se-lifecycle-building-blocks/other-se-lifecycle-building-blocks-articles/verification-and-validation-of-simulation-models.
National Research Council. (2002). Technology Development for Army Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10592.
Sargent, R. (2013) Verification and Validation of Simulation Models. J Simulation, 7, 12–24. https://doi.org/10.1057/jos.2012.20 and https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/jos.2012.20.
Shacklett, M. (2019). LiDAR: Promise and Challenge in Autonomous Vehicles: What happens in Detroit doesn't stay in Detroit when it comes to LiDAR. Point of Beginning, 45(2), 8+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A607581245/PPMI?u=west10360&sid=bookmark-PPMI&xid=25ed7ef0.
United States Army Futures Command. (2022). Who We Are: Cross Functional Teams. Army Futures Command. https://armyfuturescommand.com/cft/.
Zhao, Jian, Li, Yaxin, Zhu, Bing, Deng, Weiwen, and Sun, Bohua (2021). Method and Applications of Lidar Modeling for Virtual Testing of Intelligent Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 22(5), 2990–3000. https://doi.org/10.1109/tits.2020.2978438.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
The copyediting stage is intended to improve the flow, clarity, grammar, wording, and formatting of the article. It represents the last chance for the author to make any substantial changes to the text because the next stage is restricted to typos and formatting corrections. The file to be copyedited is in Word or .rtf format and therefore can easily be edited as a word processing document. The set of instructions displayed here proposes two approaches to copyediting. One is based on Microsoft Word's Track Changes feature and requires that the copy editor, editor, and author have access to this program. A second system, which is software independent, has been borrowed, with permission, from the Harvard Educational Review. The journal editor is in a position to modify these instructions, so suggestions can be made to improve the process for this journal.