Main Article Content
A series of three major dams and reservoirs located along the Lower Susquehanna River have historically acted as a system of sediment and nutrient pollution traps. However, episodic pulses of these pollution loads are released following short-term extreme storm events, affecting subaquatic vegetation, benthic organisms, and the overall water quality in the Upper Chesapeake Bay. In addition, all three reservoirs have reached a state of near maximum storage capacity termed as dynamic equilibrium. Based on prior research, this study seeks to reduce the sediment buildup behind the dams through a sediment removal and processing operation, and thereby reduce the ecological impact of major storms. A set of scour performance curves derived from a regression analysis, and a stochastic lifecycle cost model were used to evaluate the sediment scouring reduction and economic feasibility of three processing alternatives: Plasma Vitrification, Cement-Lock, and Quarry/Landfill, and three removal amount cases: Nominal, Moderate, and Maximum. Since the scour performance curves treat the dams as static, a fluid system dynamics model was used to determine if the dynamic interaction between the capacitance of the dams during major scouring events is negligible or considerable. A utility vs. cost analysis factoring in time, performance, and suitability of the alternatives indicates that a Cement-Lock processing plant at moderate dredging for the Safe Harbor and Conowingo Dams is the most cost-performance effective solution.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
The copyediting stage is intended to improve the flow, clarity, grammar, wording, and formatting of the article. It represents the last chance for the author to make any substantial changes to the text because the next stage is restricted to typos and formatting corrections. The file to be copyedited is in Word or .rtf format and therefore can easily be edited as a word processing document. The set of instructions displayed here proposes two approaches to copyediting. One is based on Microsoft Word's Track Changes feature and requires that the copy editor, editor, and author have access to this program. A second system, which is software independent, has been borrowed, with permission, from the Harvard Educational Review. The journal editor is in a position to modify these instructions, so suggestions can be made to improve the process for this journal.
Ain, R., Cazenas, K., Gravette, S., & Masoud, S. (2014). Design of a Dam Sediment Management System to Aid Water Quality Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay. Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium, 2014.
Appendix T. Sediments Behind the Susquehanna Dams Technical Documentation. (2010). The Chesapeake Bay TMDL Documents – US EPA.
Beneficial Uses of Great Lakes Dredged Material. (2001). The Great Lakes Commission (GLC).
The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP): Facts and Figures. (2012). Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/bay101/facts
Ji, Z.-G. (2008). Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: Modeling Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience.
Langland, M. (2009). Bathymetry and Sediment-Storage Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs on the Lower Susquehanna River, 1996–2008. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, 2009-5110.
Langland, M., & Koerkle, E. (2014). Calibration of a One-Dimensional Hydraulic Model (HEC-RAS) for Simulating Sediment Transport Through Three Reservoirs, Lower Susquehanna River Basin, 2008-2011. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Susquehanna River Watershed Assessment.
Langland, M. (2015). Sediment Transport and Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs, Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 1900-2012. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 2014-1235.
The Lower Susquehanna River Watershed Assessment (LSRWA) Draft Main Report. (2014). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (US ACE).
McLaughlin, D., Dighe, S., Ulerich, N., & Keairns, D. (1999). Decontamination and Beneficial Reuse of Dredged Estuarine Sediment: The Westinghouse Plasma Vitrification Process.
Menefee D. (2014, November 14). Maryland Politics: Clean Chesapeake Coalition at Odds with Corps of Engineers New Report on Conowingo Dam. Talbot Spy Maryland. Retrieved from http://www.talbotspy.org
Mensinger, M. (2008). Sediment Decontamination Program - Cement-Lock Technology. Gas Technology Institute.